Since last January, the West Africa is affected by unprecedented epidemic of Ebola virus. Since then, 932 deaths were reported for 1,711 cases in four countries ( Guinea , Sierra Leone , Liberia and Nigeria ).
The Ebola virus is one of the most infectious and deadly to humans, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This virus can cause severe disease outbreaks. It causes hemorrhagic fever which is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to man.
This virus belongs to Filoviridae family (filovirus) of five species (Zaire, Sudan, Côte d’Ivoire, Bundibugyo and Reston). It enters the human population by close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or body fluids of infected animals.
In Africa, the infection could be observed after handling chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, and other sick or dead infected animals found in the rainforest.
The virus is transmitted by direct contact with blood, body fluids or tissues of infected persons. Some scientists suspect the possibility of contamination through the respiratory tract, untested so far.
The mortality rate ranges between 25% to 90%
The virus, which causes “hemorrhagic fevers” takes its name from a river in northern Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire), where he was spotted for the first time in 1976 the mortality rate can vary between 25 % to 90% in men.
SYMPTOMS. haemorrhagic fever Ebola virus is an acute viral disease most often characterized by a sudden rise in temperature, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat.
Internal and external bleeding
These symptoms are followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, kidney and liver failure and, in some cases, internal and external bleeding. Laboratory tests show a decline in WBC and platelets as well as elevated liver enzymes.
The incubation period (the time between infection and the onset of symptoms) ranges from 2-21 days and people can spread the infection as long as their blood and secretions contain viruses. Was isolated Ebola virus in the semen until 61 th day after the onset of the disease in a contracted laboratory cases.
It is felt that the funeral ritual, during which relatives and friends are in direct contact with the body of the deceased, play an important role in the transmission, but we also know that the Ebola virus can be transmitted through animal handling carriers virus, alive or dead.